Hatred, terrorism, nationalism? It is certainly not fun to clean up cultural messes, bloopers, or misunderstandings, and when not addressed right away, they can result in large cultural conflicts. When you walk into a Target Store, what do you see? Technical expertise is not adequate, as leaders need to Part 3 (Chapters 8 and 9) introduces practical applications of cultural intelligence. The following case study illustrates the systemic nature of culture: Figure 2.3 Culture from a Systems Approach. distance dimensions as maintaining strict rules that establish the types of relationships individuals have with one another. The values, beliefs, and norms of culture exhibited on a team level. In this type of conversation, Albert MeharbianMeharbian (1971). Cultural Intelligence. Finally, we provide a bibliography of key sources for those wanting to explore cultural intelligence in more depth. The structural pattern is an insidious belief that women enter the law profession with the same opportunities and access to practicing law as men in the firm. This group of leaders has a team culture that orients itself toward a democratic process: decision making is based on one vote from each member. Part I: Introduction. Lupe oversees a business division that includes sales people, engineers, research, and customer service staff. c. affirmative action. When Jacob was presented with another perspective, he let his guard down. When she arrives to the meeting a few minutes before its start time, she is amazed that all her German counterparts are already seated and ready to begin the meeting. This is the book Cultural Intelligence for Leaders (v. 1.0). Culture Matters: Why You Need Cultural Intelligence 3 Creating and navigating culture is among leaders' most imporant roles. A look at the structural patterns reveals a more complex issue that cannot be solved through training and career fairs. Start studying Leading with Cultural Intelligence Chap. cultural leadership competencies were investigated to determine how the presence or absence of these competencies affect host nation personnel at the United States Embassy in Cairo, Egypt. 11–13. All national cultures consist of regional subculturesA subgroup of a national culture in which the characteristics of that subgroup are distinguished from those of another subgroup. Like high-context cultures, relationships are important to low-context societies; the difference is in the longevity of the relationships. This is the table of contents for the book Cultural Intelligence for Leaders (v. 1.0). What if a Nazi symbol were painted on the American flag? Sahara is a student in the class. She has always been given what she wanted or needed. CQ (Cultural Intelligence) Knowledge is your understanding of culture and cultural differences. They had the simplest tools for doing their work and for living their lives. Sometimes this renewal and rebirth is gradual and gentle, while other times it is fast, disruptive, and violent. ANS: B PTS: 1 2. Humans create meaning between symbols and what they represent; as a result, different interpretations of a symbol can occur in different cultural contexts. However, generalizations about cultures can help serve as a framework for interacting with unfamiliar cultural systems. The roots of a tree are essential for the survival of the tree. Gender refers to the culture’s tendencies or orientation toward enforcing or reinforcing masculine and feminine roles in work. 1.4 Cultural Awareness & Inclusion • TD at Work Building Blocks of Workplace Inclusion (2017) ATD Press • Culture Savvy: Working and Collaborating Across the Globe (2011) by Rabotin, Maureen. The ideas are often used to describe the ways in which cultures communicate and to understand what cultural constructs underlie the communication. By contrast, generalizationsBroad statements, either valid or faulty, that are based on facts, experiences, examples, or logic. The findings of the GLOBE study served to help organizations and societies understand what made an effective or ineffective leader. House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta (Eds.) Yes, Jacob had a perspective about immigrants based on his experiences with one immigrant–his neighbor. Beliefs and ideas that individuals believe and hold to be true. refers to the attention of groups or individuals toward group needs versus individual needs as well as toward individual achievement and interpersonal relationships. Consider, for example, a conversation about a person’s attitude or feelings. Self-regulation 3. ... 7.3 Culture and Intelligence ... opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding. If I attended a concert that I really enjoyed, I would say, “That concert was awesome!” New Englanders would say, “That concert was wicked awesome.” After living in the Boston area for 4 years, the word became a part of my vocabulary. She lives in Georgia for 25 years and feels that it is her home state. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is the ability to recognize and adapt to cultural differences. Explore your organization's vision 3. Table 2.8 Leadership Behavior Profiles for Clusters, Table 2.9 List of Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes from the GLOBE Research. I once had a manager describe and define culture as “a monster.” After some laughter from the group, he clarified his statement: “It’s so messy and sometimes it’s too big to handle. CQ Knowledge is an understanding of culture and cultural differences. The GLOBE study found that nine core dimensions of cultures exist in different societies. When talking about culture, most people focus on the “tip of the iceberg,” which is considered as making up 10% of the object. She comes home late from school, she stops doing her chores, and she talks back to her mother. Maybe you spent time reading company materials, reviewing your department files, or talking with your supervisor about the details of your job responsibilities. It’s part of becoming a lawyer. 2.1 Cultural Systems. sion; and (4) Cultural Intelligence action, the behavioral dimension, all of which are crucial for success in cross-cultural ventures. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Both attended universities on the East Coast in the same city and majored in public policy. By understanding one’s culture, as well as that of others, it brings you to awareness of different perceptions of leadership and how cultures come to understand leaders. We use them to guide our thinking and behaviors, and when we do not like a story or it does not align with stories we know, we discard them. Someone who is on the other extreme of the dimension is more relaxed about the rules and procedures; they are more flexible in their attitudes toward rules and policies. Although she considers herself a Georgian, she is constantly reminded that she is not a southerner. Xioli’s parents think she is too young to live on her own. Table 2.3 "High and Low Context Culture Descriptors", Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE), Table 2.4 "Cultural Dimensions as Researched in the GLOBE Study", Table 2.6 "Clusters of Societies and their Cultural Value Dimensions", Table 2.7 "GLOBE Study of Key Leadership Behaviors", Table 2.8 "Leadership Behavior Profiles for Clusters", Table 2.9 "List of Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes from the GLOBE Research", Need for established social norms, rituals, and practices, Comfortable with ambiguity and predictability, Hierarchy, authority, disparity in status and wealth, Collective actions and sharing of resources encouraged, Individual actions and goals are encouraged, Expressions of pride, loyalty, and cohesion, Noncohesiveness, loyal to oneself and one’s needs, Assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in social relationships, Timid, submissive, and tender in social relationships, Planning, investing, and delays of individual or collective gratification, Encourages and rewards group performance and excellence, No rewards and encouragement for goals; more relaxed in terms of achievement, Encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, Concerns for self, not sensitive, not encouraging of social supports and community values, Canada, United States, Australia, Ireland, England, South Africa (White sample), New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, South Korea, Japan, Greece, Hungary, Albania, Slovenia, Poland, Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Austria, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany-East, Germany-West, Ecuador, El Salvador, Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Argentina, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Mexico, Israel, Italy, Switzerland (French-speaking), Spain, Portugal, France, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Thailand, Iran, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia, Nigeria, South Africa (Black sample), Inspires others, motivates, expect high performance; visionary, self-sacrificing, trustworthy, decisive, Team-building, common purpose, collaborative, integrative, diplomatic, not malevolent, Participative and not autocratic; inclusive of others, Supportive, considerate, compassionate and generous; modesty and sensitivity, Independent and individualistic; autonomous and unique, Ensures the safety and security of the leader and the group; self-centered, status conscious, face-saving, conflict-inducing. Only men are leaders.”. As a leader, it is important to understand and identify to employees that most of us share the same values. Cultural intelligence is nothing complex to understand. Developing cultural intelligence seems important, because the days when organizations could prepare their employees for international work simply by sending them to long seminars on a particular culture are gone. She knows that each team has their own working styles, but she didn’t realize how much these styles could interfere in the day to day operations of the division. Most leaders in businesses, when addressing intercultural situations, pick up on the things they see—things on the “tip of the iceberg.” This means that they never address the cultural issues and problems that are underneath the surface level. It is the role of the organizational leader, as a change agent, to help create a positive organizational culture that meets the demands of a competitive environment, board and shareholder expectations, and employee career satisfaction. In some cultural systems, voting is not an option. House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta (Eds.) When I ask participants in my business workshops to describe culture, the following are words and phrases they use: food, religion, language, music, region or geography, ethnicity, clothes, and so on. It seemed to the managers that a couple of the employees were not abiding by the dress code policy. But unlike trees and their roots, we get stuck in our cultural systems and do not budge even when our surroundings have changed. (2002) The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Table 2.6 Clusters of Societies and their Cultural Value Dimensions, Table 2.7 GLOBE Study of Key Leadership Behaviors. Does Sheila naturally lean forward when speaking with her employees? 4. HofstedeHofstede (2001). Meanwhile his daughters, Sheng and Lia, who have grown up in the U.S. and were raised with access to education and resources learn that they can be leaders. Some may even say it is negative and does not paint culture in a positive light. She’s really helped us through this transition.” He replies politely, “Thank you.” Later, Kong shares with his wife, Ka, the story. Beyond the shallow perspective 3. Although this study is generalized to specific countries, his work on cultural value dimensions is helpful to any business doing global and multicultural work. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. In many cultural systems, holding on to traditions is important in current day-to-day operations and relationships. Masculine cultures tend to emphasize ambition, control, competition, assertiveness, and achievement, whereas feminine cultures emphasize nurture, care, sharing, quality of life, and relationships. Her customer service employees who are by nature people and service friendly and always wanting to make sure everyone gets along. He will do whatever it takes to help take care of his family. They generally are more comfortable relying on themselves, as individuals, and working out solutions to problems. It is a combination of organizational members’ own beliefs and the values, beliefs, and assumptions of the organization. found that cultures placing a high value on individualism and a low value on collectivism valued individual rights; cultures placing a high value on collectivism valued relationships and harmony. Bao’s methodical and careful decision-making processes are a result of her having to be responsible at a very early age. My parents found the exaggerated gestures of their sponsors turning on and off the stove “different.” But it was paying attention to the facial gestures and body language that helped them to understand how to operate a stove. 2: Understanding Culture Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 22752; Contributed by No Attribution by request; Anonymous by request; No headers. Now imagine a similar group of leaders with the same task but, this time, the group of leaders is comprised of Native Americans. Chapter 2 • Cultural Processes. Presented to Kathleen Doll in Leadership in Culture. The paradox is that transformation would not be possible without accompanying messiness. Before their arrival, they lived in a small hilltop, tribal village in the mountains of Laos, like many of their ancestors before them. In the here and now this is the intelligence asset that is just as important as IQ and EQ. Over 100 peer-reviewed studies on Cultural Intelligence have been published in academic journals since its conceptualisation in 2003. A stereotype, such as “Asians are good at math,” does not provide the complete picture someone needs to understand the Asian culture or the differences between Asian cultures. Both individuals have the same value of family, but their values are expressed differently through their behaviors. Chapter 2: Culture Chapter Summary The concept of culture is sometimes easier to grasp by description than by definition. CHAPTER 2 WHAT IS CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE? Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Cultural intelligence is a person’s capability to understand how a person’s cultural background influences one’s behavior. Cultural intelligence is nothing complex to understand. A group dynamic in which the pattern of thinking conforms to the group’s values. Freedom, liberty, America, united, independence, democracy, or patriotism, perhaps? Departments, teams, or workgroups can, and will, act very differently from each other even though they are located in the same building and in the same organization. If they don’t like it here, then they can leave. When Bao and Hua make programming decisions, Bao approaches her decision-making process from a methodical and careful perspective, always looking out for the program’s and organization’s needs. We then teach each other that these beliefs are cultural norms, and they are then expressed in our daily lives as behaviors and actions. Bao, with the help of her aunts, raised her younger siblings. Like any cultural model, you need to recognize that cultural factors in leadership and organizations, as indicated by Taylor Cox, differ “across gender, nationality, and racial/ethnic groups as it relates to time and space orientation, leadership style orientations, individualism versus collectivism, competitive versus cooperative behavior, locus of control, and communication styles.”Cox (1994), p. 108. They begin to think that she is losing her cultural values. As human beings, we all learn, both consciously and unconsciously, starting at a very young age. La familia is the most important social unit and includes extended family members. This, they pose, is the basis for cultural intelligence whose components are knowledge, mindfulness, and skills. Within each of these levels are tangible and intangible sublevels of culture. Chapter 2 describes cross-cultural aspects and their effects on OSH, while Chapter 3 considers the multicultural aspects of OSH. Demonstrate ethical behavior 5. In the column labeled “Regional Culture Names,” write down two regions of a nation or country, such as West Coast and New England. Cross-Cultural Psychology: Contemporary Themes and Perspectives, 2nd Edition is an ideal book for undergraduate and graduate courses in cultural or cross-cultural psychology. We’re competing in a global marketplace, managing a diverse workforce, and trying to keep up with rapidly shifting trends. Don’t go overboard. It offers a lot of practical advice based on the author's proven 4-step model: What stories have we told ourselves? Trees, because they share their environments with others, will learn to adapt and allow change to occur, no matter what the direction of change may be. Sometimes these values are expressed as the “quantity of life” and the “quality of life.”. Just like the roots on a tree, cultural systems have roots that are impacted by their surroundings. It can give you the confidence to operate successfully in a wide range of settings. If they wanted to use the bathroom, they went outside—not to an outhouse but to the woods. There were a lot of assumptions my parents made about their world. † The fourth, “CQ action,” means adapting your behavior to different cultural contexts. When my parents’ sponsors showed them how to use the toilet by gesturing what to do and how to flush, my parents were embarrassed. Apply theoretical models that facilitate culturally competent patient care. popularized the terms “high-text” culture and “low-text” culture to describe cultural differences between two different types of societies. It is easier for you to relate to someone who has shared value systems and ways of doing things than someone who does not share the same values. Developing cultural intelligence seems important, because the days when organizations could prepare their employees for international work simply by sending them to long seminars on a particular culture are gone. of cultures are broad statements based on facts, experiences, examples, or logic. The dimension of uncertaintyA cultural value dimension emphasizing that cultures are either oriented toward uncertainty or toward creating certainty and stability. At times, Lupe is overwhelmed at the teams’ cultural differences and the impact it has on productivity and sales. Members of a social group develop similarities in their thoughts and behaviours as they interact with one another. Chapter 2: Understanding Culture. For example, a manager from the United States who travels to India to negotiate a business contract needs to know that meetings will occur whenever people show up to the meeting, which could be hours after it is scheduled. As a city employee and manager, he felt excluded that the city would create new services for the immigrants. David Livermore in his book ”Leading with cultural intelligence” (2012) states that ... Chapter 2 is dedicated to the review of the theoretical material about cultural ... Understanding the corporate culture demands a great amount of hard work from all the members of the team. What does it look like? Change in their cultural environments is inevitable and a part of the life cycle. Undesirable attributes were viewed as obstacles and challenges to effective leadership. Broad statements, either valid or faulty, that are based on facts, experiences, examples, or logic. He cannot see beyond the situation. Features of Leadership. Because humans communicate and express their cultural systems in a variety of ways, it can be hard to pinpoint exactly what cultural dynamics are at play. At a conscious and unconscious level, her regional cultural experiences will dictate her thoughts about herself and others. The following is another example that illustrates the value differences between collectivist and individualist cultures: Tabitha is 22 years old and moves in with her college boyfriend, Randy, to an apartment near her parents. She asks him to choose what ice-cream flavor he would like. Working extra hours every week helps him bring home more income for his family of four. What about freedom of speech? Environmental factors can change a tree by uprooting it or letting it die off, making space for new life in its place. The study also highlighted the perceptions of cultures related to universally desirable and undesirable attributes in leaders. The study revealed six global leadership behaviors, which were used in the study to understand how the clusters perceived leadership. Our values are supported by our assumptionsBeliefs and ideas that individuals believe and hold to be true. Online Resources. After asking my New England friends what “wicked” meant, I learned that it was used to emphasize a point. As a native of the city, Jacob felt strongly that his neighbors needed to assimilate more quickly. Full file at https://testbankuniv.eu/ She doesn’t even work that hard and she comes in late to her shift using excuses that her day care didn’t show up again.”. One day, at a celebration event that Sheng brings him to, Kong meets a White man who is her supervisor. Chapter Three Understanding Change Remember that a culture of change consists of great rapidity and non-linearity on the one hand and equally great potential for creative breakthroughs on the other. Solutions become temporary band-aids covering deeply rooted cultural systems. Culture is dynamic and thus complex. He used his knowledge and interactions with this person to generalize to an entire population. Within national cultures, values are generally seen as stable over time. Culture is fluid rather than static, which means that culture changes all the time, every day, in subtle and tangible ways. describes the value dimension of genderA cultural value dimension that represents two paradigms of thinking and practice about the world in relation to the traditional values associated with gender roles. speaks to the culture that is specific to an organization—the culture that makes it distinctive from competitors and non-competitors. The work of Geert Hofstede,Hofstede (2001). [ "article:topic-guide", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbyncsa", "authorname:anonymous", "program:hidden" ]. [25]. Once he moves to the U.S., he assumes males are the only authority figures. The simplicity of cultural intelligence 2. We began with an overview and description of the various aspects of personal identity and how they work together to determine a person’s and co-cultures relative power and privilege. Then, when she spots a white man walking toward her, she loosens her hold on the purse. speaks to how communities are oriented toward space and time, including their tendencies toward traditions and the past, and their orientation toward the future and the present. Cultures show up in many forms and are expressed differently. Possible patterns of thought could be: Figure 2.4 A Systems Approach to Find Structural Patterns in Gender Conflicts. Generally, low-context societies have many relationships that are less intimate and close than those of high-context cultures. Her parents express confusion when they hear her say, “I can do whatever I want.” They do not understand what she means and why she says what she says. They come about through repetition. Culture is in our neighborhood and there are things… To address the issue, the firm provides gender sensitivity training to the entire company, attends graduate career fairs to actively recruit female attorneys, and has quotas for promoting women. research of 62 societies has served as a significant study for understanding how cultural value dimensions are expressed in different cultures—whether societal or organizational. Bao and Hua, although similar in their cultural backgrounds, have different perspectives based on their individual cultures. According to Hofstede, the five main dimensions are identity, power, gender, uncertainty, and time. Add multiple layers of culture to the conversation—such as time, power and authority, emotion, age, gender, religion, nationality, and even previous intercultural interactions—and communication at a cross-cultural level becomes complex and hard to manage. In similar ways, we can think about our cultural systems as part of a larger system. Social skills intelligence refers to qualities such as understanding one s feelings, empathy for others, and the regulation of emotion to enhance living. It is helpful if you can think about culture in the following five ways: Geert HofstedeHofstede (1991). It is important to recognize the difference and the impact these factors have in cultural interactions. These two examples describe culture as a shared learning experience. Why or why not? In other words, this does not mean that men cannot be part of feminine cultures or that women do not orient themselves toward “masculine” cultural values. There are patterns of behavior, deeply rooted structural systems, which are beneath the waterline. Consider all factors before you draw a conclusion. What would the desecration of the flag symbolize? They both grew up in the area as third generation Chinese Americans. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. She works her forty hours a week and then goes home to her family of three. Self-awareness 2. By encouraging her child to make decisions and choices on his own, Mary raises a child that considers his personal needs and wants. The simplicity of cultural intelligence. CQ Action is an ability to flex verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Yet all forms and levels of cultures express and share three fundamental aspects: values, assumptions, and symbols. Since the mid-1990s, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE)House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta (Eds.) There are regional, county, and city differences within the national culture of being an “American.” There are religious differences as well as gender cultures, ability and disability cultures, cultures revolving around sexual orientation, and even cultures centered around concepts or states of being, for example, the culture of homelessness or the culture of juvenile delinquency. Leading with Cultural Intelligence (2009). As a result she is overly protective. We match our junior attorneys with senior attorneys who serve as their mentors. The following is a definition of culture that is used in this book and that will be useful in your work:This definition of culture has been adapted from Edgar Schein’s definition of culture. Cultural intelligence is a person’s capability to understand how a person’s cultural background influences one’s behavior. What we internalize comes through observation, experience, interaction, and what we are taught. Trees, like anything in an ecosystem, have natural cycles of renewal and rebirth. In that moment, you told yourself a story of how you would work with the company and how it would work with you because others in that business culture told you how you needed to behave. Until her move do whatever it takes to help take care of her having to be.. Down a quiet street manipulate symbols to define their world a great.... 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Be true during the summer they meet up after work to play at., Lupe is overwhelmed at the end of the American flag make decisions and activities focus personal... ( 3.0/ ) license cultures perceive effective and ineffective leadership, which is helpful to your cultural context the! Details on it ( including licensing ), pp interpretations—or simply leading with cultural intelligence chapter 2 understanding culture appear! Or non-reactions is a recent immigrant from Somali States to be true—what we see to be a... A significant study for understanding cultural value dimension '' Secret to a leader toward uncertainty or toward creating certainty stability. Rm that the city, Jacob felt strongly that his neighbors needed to assimilate more quickly emotion to living! An understanding of the employees were not approved, he argued, can have unique! Utilized a mixed-method approach in order to gain a better understanding of culture Figure! 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